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|Preferred IUPAC name
|Systematic IUPAC name
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||102.089 g·mol−1|
|Density||1.082 g cm−3, liquid|
|Melting point||−73.1 °C (−99.6 °F; 200.1 K)|
|Boiling point||139.8 °C (283.6 °F; 412.9 K)|
Solubility in water
|2.6 g/100 mL, reacts (see text)|
|Vapor pressure||4 mmHg (20 °C)|
Magnetic susceptibility (χ)
Refractive index (nD)
Std enthalpy of
|H226, H302, H314, H332|
|P210, P233, P240, P241, P242, P243, P260, P261, P264, P270, P271, P280, P301+P312, P301+P330+P331, P303+P361+P353, P304+P312, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P310, P312, P321, P330, P363, P370+P378, P403+P235, P405, P501|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
|Flash point||49 °C (120 °F; 322 K)|
|316 °C (601 °F; 589 K)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LC50 (median concentration)
|1000 ppm (rat, 4 hr)|
|NIOSH (US health exposure limits):|
|TWA 5 ppm (20 mg/m3)|
|C 5 ppm (20 mg/m3)|
IDLH (Immediate danger)
|Safety data sheet (SDS)||ICSC 0209|
Related acid anhydrides
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
verify (what is ?)
Acetic anhydride, or ethanoic anhydride, is the chemical compound with the formula (CH3CO)2O. Commonly abbreviated Ac2O, it is the simplest isolable anhydride of a carboxylic acid and is widely used as a reagent in organic synthesis. It is a colorless liquid that smells strongly of acetic acid, which is formed by its reaction with moisture in the air.
Structure and properties
Acetic anhydride, lượt thích most acid anhydrides, is a flexible molecule with a nonplanar structure. The pi system linkage through the central oxygen offers very weak resonance stabilization compared vĩ đại the dipole-dipole repulsion between the two carbonyl oxygens. The energy barriers vĩ đại bond rotation between each of the optimal aplanar conformations are quite low.
Like most acid anhydrides, the carbonyl carbon atom of acetic anhydride has electrophilic character, as the leaving group is carboxylate. The internal asymmetry may contribute vĩ đại acetic anhydride's potent electrophilicity as the asymmetric geometry makes one side of a carbonyl carbon atom more reactive than vãn the other, and in doing sánh tends vĩ đại consolidate the electropositivity of a carbonyl carbon atom vĩ đại one side (see electron mật độ trùng lặp từ khóa diagram).
Acetic anhydride was first synthesized in 1852 by the French chemist Charles Frédéric Gerhardt (1816-1856) by heating potassium acetate with benzoyl chloride.
Acetic anhydride is produced by carbonylation of methyl acetate:
- CH3CO2CH3 + CO → (CH3CO)2O
The Tennessee Eastman acetic anhydride process involves the conversion of methyl acetate vĩ đại methyl iodide and an acetate salt. Carbonylation of the methyl iodide in turn affords acetyl iodide, which reacts with acetate salts or acetic acid vĩ đại give the product. Rhodium chloride in the presence of lithium iodide is employed as catalysts. Because acetic anhydride is not stable in water, the conversion is conducted under anhydrous conditions.
To a decreasing extent, acetic anhydride is also prepared by the reaction of ketene (ethenone) with acetic acid at 45–55 °C and low pressure (0.05–0.2 bar).
- H2C=C=O + CH3COOH → (CH3CO)2O
- (ΔH = −63 kJ/mol)
The route from acetic acid vĩ đại acetic anhydride via ketene was developed by Wacker Chemie in 1922, when the demand for acetic anhydride increased due vĩ đại the production of cellulose acetate.
Due vĩ đại its low cost, acetic anhydride is usually purchased, not prepared, for use in research laboratories.
Acetic anhydride is a versatile reagent for acetylations, the introduction of acetyl groups vĩ đại organic substrates. In these conversions, acetic anhydride is viewed as a source of CH3CO+.
Acetylation of alcohols and amines
Alcohols and amines are readily acetylated. For example, the reaction of acetic anhydride with ethanol yields ethyl acetate:
- (CH3CO)2O + CH3CH2OH → CH3CO2CH2CH3 + CH3COOH
Often a base such as pyridine is added vĩ đại function as catalyst. In specialized applications, Lewis acidic scandium salts have also proven effective catalysts.
Acetylation of aromatic rings
Aromatic rings are acetylated by acetic anhydride. Usually acid catalysts are used vĩ đại accelerate the reaction. Illustrative are the conversions of benzene vĩ đại acetophenone and ferrocene vĩ đại acetylferrocene:
- (C5H5)2Fe + (CH3CO)2O → (C5H5)Fe(C5H4COCH3) + CH3CO2H
Preparation of other acid anhydrides
Dicarboxylic acids are converted vĩ đại the anhydrides upon treatment with acetic anhydride. It is also used for the preparation of mixed anhydrides such as that with nitric acid, acetyl nitrate.
Precursor vĩ đại geminal diacetates
Aldehydes react with acetic anhydride in the presence of an acidic catalyst vĩ đại give geminal diacetates. A former industrial route vĩ đại vinyl acetate involved the intermediate ethylidene diacetate, the geminal diacetate obtained from acetaldehyde and acetic anhydride:
- CH3CHO + (CH3CO)2O → (CH3CO2)2CHCH3
Acetic anhydride dissolves in water vĩ đại approximately 2.6% by weight. Aqueous solutions have limited stability because, lượt thích most acid anhydrides, acetic anhydride hydrolyses vĩ đại give carboxylic acids. In this case, acetic acid is formed, this reaction product being fully water miscible:
- (CH3CO)2O + H2O → 2 CH3COOH
As indicated by its organic chemistry, acetic anhydride is mainly used for acetylations leading vĩ đại commercially significant materials. Its largest application is for the conversion of cellulose vĩ đại cellulose acetate, which is a component of photographic film and other coated materials, and is used in the manufacture of cigarette filters. Similarly it is used in the production of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), which is prepared by the acetylation of salicylic acid. It is also used as an active modification agent via autoclave impregnation and subsequent acetylation vĩ đại make a durable and long-lasting timber.
In starch industry, acetic anhydride is a common acetylation compound, used for the production of modified starches (E1414, E1420, E1422)
Because of its use for the synthesis of heroin by the diacetylation of morphine, acetic anhydride is listed as a U.S. DEA List II precursor, and restricted in many other countries.
Acetic anhydride is an irritant and combustible liquid; it is highly corrosive vĩ đại skin and any direct tương tác will result in severe burns. Because of its reactivity toward water and alcohol, foam or carbon dioxide are preferred for fire suppression. The vapour of acetic anhydride is harmful.
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- ICSC 0209
- NIOSH Pocket Guide vĩ đại Chemical Hazards